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Frequency of the dark matter subhalo collisions and bifurcation sequence arising formation of dwarf galaxies

Koki Otaki (University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences)

Masao Mori (University of Tsukuba, CCS)



The cold dark matter model predicts galaxies have 100 times more dark matter mass than stars. Nevertheless, recent observations report the existence of dark-matter-deficient galaxies with less dark matter than expected. To solve this problem, we investigate the physical processes of galaxy formation in head-on collisions between gas-containing dark matter subhaloes (DMSHs). Analytical estimation of the collision frequency between DMSHs associated with a massive host halo indicates that collisions frequently occur within one-tenth of the virial radius of the host halo, with a collision time-scale of about $10 \,\mathrm{Myr}$, and the most frequent relative velocity increases with increasing radius. Using analytical models and numerical simulations, we show the bifurcation channel of the formation of dark-matter-dominated and dark-matter-deficient galaxies. In the case of low-velocity collisions, a dark-matter-dominated galaxy is formed by the merging of two DMSHs. In the case of moderate-velocity collisions, the two DMSHs penetrate each other. However, the gas medium collides, and star formation begins as the gas density increases, forming a dwarf galaxy without dark matter at the collision surface. In the case of high-velocity collisions, shock-breakout occurs due to the shock waves generated at the collision surface reaching the gas surface, and no galaxy forms. For example, the simulation demonstrates that a pair of DMSHs with a mass of $10^9\,\mathrm{M_\odot}$ containing gas of 0.1 solar metallicity forms a dark-matter-deficient galaxy with a stellar mass of $10^7\,\mathrm{M_\odot}$ for a relative velocity of $200 \,\mathrm{km\,s^{-1}}$.

The paper was published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.